History Of Architecture Timeline

Contents

Influences in the Development of Architecture

A. Geographical

B. Geological

C. Climactic

D. Religious

E. Historical

F. Socio-political

Periods of Architectural History

The History of Architecture starts with:

A. Prehistoric

B. Egyptian (3050 B.C. to 900 B.C.)

C. Mesopotamian (4000 B.C. – 4th Century A.D.)

D. Greek (850 B.C. – 2nd Century A.D.)

E. Roman (2nd Century B.C. – 476 A.D.)

F. Early Christian (4th Century A.D.)

G. Byzantine ( 527 A.D. to 565 A.D.)

H. Saracenic / Islamic (7th Century A.D.)

I. Romanesque (800 to 1200 A.D.)

J. English medieval

K. Gothic (1100 to 1450 A.D.)

L. Renaissance (1400 to 1600 A.D.)

M. Baroque (1600 to 1830 A.D.)

N. Rococo (1650-1790 A.D.)

O. Neoclassicism (1730 to 1925 A.D.)

P. Art Nouveau (1890 to 1914 A.D.)

Q. Beaux Arts (1895 to 1925 A.D.)

R. Neo-Gothic (1905 to 1930 A.D.)

S. Art Deco (1925 to 1937 A.D.)

T. Modern (1900 to PRESENT)

Prehistoric Architecture

“DAWN OF ARCHITECTURE”

– Cultural stages

1. Stone age
– Paleolithic (old stone age)
– Mesolithic (middle stone age)
– Neolithic (new stone age)
2. Bronze age
3. Iron age

– 3 classifications of early known types of architecture

  1. Dwellings
    a. Rock cave
    – earliest form of dwellings
    b. Tents & huts
    – made from animal skins, tree barks, leaves, reeds, brushes
  1. Religious monuments
    a. Menhir
    – Isolated single upright stone
    b. Dolmen
    – 2 or more upright stone supporting a horizontal slab
    c. Cromlech/stone circle
    – Monolithic stones forming concentric circles
  2. Burial mounds
    a. Tumuli / barrows
    – Earthen mounds used for burials

Egyptian Architecture

5000 B.C. – 1ST CENTURY A.D.

– Architectural character:

• Simplicity
• Monumentality
• Solidity / Massiveness

– Principally designed for

• Internal effect

– Influences

A. Geographical
– The Nile river (communication, highway, lifeline & “fertile soil”)


B. Geological
– Main materials:
▪ Stone – for Pyramids & Temples
▪ Palm leaves – for Roofing
▪ Acacia – for Boats
▪ Sycamore – for the Sarcophagus


C. Climactic
– Structures have no downspout, drainage & gutters due to the absence of rain
– No windows to cut heat penetration


D. Religious
– They believed in life after death & the preservation of dead bodies
– Pharoah as king and god
(when died becomes “Osiris” and wife becomes “isis”)
– Monotheistic in theory,
Polytheistic in Practice

E. Historical – 30 dynasties

– Ancient kingdom
– Middle kingdom
– New empire

F. Socio-political

– Monarchy : form of gov’t
– pharoah : king, highest priest
– social class

– Egyptian gods

  • Amun-ra : Chief god
  • Rah : Sun god
  • Atum : World creator
  • Osiris : God of the Dead
  • Isis : Wife of Osiris
  • Horus : Son of Osiris
  • Set : God of Evil
  • Thot : God of Wisdom
  • Anubis : God of Death
  • Ptah : God of Craftsmen
  • Serapis : Bull God

System of construction:
• Post & Lintel / C olumnar & Trabeated

– Features

• Batterwall
– inclination of wall from base to top of the façade
• Hieroglyphics
– form of writing; used as ornamentation on the walls

– Structures

I. Tombs

a. Mastaba: Flat top / Tapered
b. Pyramid : Four sides; facing Cardinal points

  1. Step pyramid
  2. Bent / blunt pyramid
  3. Slope pyramid

c. Rock-cut : Cut into the mountain

II. Temples

Sancruaries exclusively for kings & priests

Parts of an egyptian temple
  1. Entrance of pylon
    – massive sloping towers fronted by an obelisk
  2. Hypaethral court
    – larger outer court
  3. Hypostyle hall
    – pillared hall
  4. Sanctuary
    – surrounded by passages & chambers used in connection
  5. Avenue of sphinx
    – stretch of sphinxes lined up

III. Obelisks

Monumental pillars at Temple entrances

IV. Sphinx

Mythical monster with the body of a lion

a. Androsphinx : man head
b. Heiraosphinx : hawk head
c. Criosphinx : ram head

– Notable structures

The Great Pyramids of Giza – Hemiunu
▪ Pyramid of Cheops / Khufu
▪ Pyramid of Chefren / Khafra
▪ Pyramid of Mykerinos / Menkaura
Great temple of Abu Simbel (Ramesses II)
Great temple of Ammon, Karnak & the great hypostyle hall (Ramesses II)
Temple of queen Hatshepsut (Senemut)

Mesopotamian Architecture

4000 B.C. – 4TH CENTURY A.D.

– Architectural character

  • Massiveness
  • Monumentality
  • Grandeur

– Influences

A. Geographical

  • Twin rivers of tigris & euphrates
  • The fertile crescent

B. Geological

  • Chief building materials:
    • Bricks – Assyria & Babylon
    • Timber, coloured limestone – Persia

C. Climactic

  • Flood & heavy rains in Mesopotamia
    • Open type temples in Persia due to dry & hot climate

D. Religious

  • Ziggurats as “holy mountains”

E. Historical

  • Babylonian period
    • Assyrian period
    • Neo-babylonian period
    • Persian period

F. Socio-political

  • Babylonia : highest degree of civilization among 3
  • Assyria & persia : Military superiority

– Features

  • Persian architecture– Columnar & Trabeated
  • Assyrian & babylonian architecture– Arch, Vault, flat strips & Butresses w/ glazed tile

– Structures

I. Babylon

  • Ziggurats (“holy mountains”)
    • Chief building structure
    • Rectangular plan

a.   Archaic – one flat top

White temple @ warka

b.   Two or more stages 

Palace of Nebuchadnezzar

“Hanging gardens of Babylon”

c.   Seven stages

Tower of Babel

  • Ishtar gate – Blue glazed tiles

Built by Nebuchadnezzar II

II. Assyria

•      Palace of Sargon, Khorsabad (built by king Sargon II)

– Contains 700 rooms

– Entrance portals with statues of headed winged bulls & lions

Important parts of the palace

1. Seraglio: palace proper

2. Harem: private fam./ for women

3. Khan: service chambers

III. Persia

Persepolis

Built by darius I (“Darius the great”)

ceremonial capital of the achaemenid empire

Contains the FF

1. Palace of Darius

2. Palace of Xerxes

3. Hypostyle hall of Xerxes

4. Halls of hundred Columns

5. Propylon / Gate of Xerxes

– Other notable structures

  • The ziggurat of ur (built by king ur-nammu)
  • The ziggurat @ chogha zanbil (built by king untash napirisha)
  • The ziggurat of dur-kurigalzu (built by king kurigalzu)

Greek Architecture

8TH CENTURY B.C. – 2ND CENTURY A.D.

– Architectural character

• simplicity & harmony
• purity of lines
• perfection of proportions
• refinement of details

– Influences

A. Geographical
– greek peninsula bounded by the Black sea & Mediterranean sea
– Athens as its centre kingdom on which the upper city known as “acropolis / citadel” is located


B. Geological
– Marble: chief building material


C. Climactic
– Intermediate climate between cold & hot made it favourable for outdoor public ceremonies


D. Religious
– Aegeans : worship nature
– Greek : represents deities through large statues

– Greek Gods / Deities

O Aphrodite : Love, Beauty
O Apollo : Music, Poetry, Medicine
O Ares : War
O Artemis : Chastity
O Athena : Learning, Wisdom
O Demeter : Earth, Agriculture
O Dionysus : Wine, Feasting
O Hephaestus : Fire, Flame, Forgery
O Hera : Wife Of Zeus; Marriage
O Heracles : Son Of Zeus; Man + God
O Hermes : Messenger Of The Gods
O Hestia : Hearth, Home
O Nike : Victory
O Pan : Wild, Shepherds, Flock
O Poseidon : Sea, Earthquake, Storm
O Zeus : Supreme God

E. Historical
– Early period
aegeans, minoans & myceneans as the early people of greece

– Hellenic period
the age of classical greece

F. Socio-political
– music, dancing, wrestling, boxing, gymnastics, games, craftworks
– tyrannic, aristocratic and democratic form of government

– Aegean / Early period

– Megaron: houses

(Thalamus – sleeping room)

Notable structures

  • The Lion Gate, Mycenae
  • Palace of King Knossos, Crete
  • Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae

▪ Tholos : Vault; beehive shape

▪ Dromos : Long passage

– Hellenic / classical Greek period

– Temples: Chief buildings
(Built towards the east)

Features

• rectangular plan
• propylaea as gateways
• collonade surrounding temples
• marble sculptures
• mural paintings
• use of entasis (slight convex curve on columns to correct optical illusion)

Structures

Acropolis

  1. The Parthenon
  2. Old temple of Athena
  3. Erectheion
  4. Statue of Athena
  5. Propylaea
  6. Brauroneion
  7. Pinacotheca (picture gallery)
  8. Glyptotheca (sculpture gallery)
  9. Theater of Dionysus
  10. Stoa of Eumenes
  11. Asclepieion
  12. Odeion of Herodes Atticus
  13. Odeion of Pericles

Temple

O Pronaos : inner portico
O Naos : principal chamber
O Epinaos : treasury chamber

Classical orders

Column + Entablature

O Doric order
▪ simple, earliest, most perfect
O Ionic order
▪ most sophisticated
O Corinthian order
▪ slenderest, elegant & most elaborated

Special forms of supports

O Caryatids
▪ female without hands
O Canephorae
▪ female with hands holding a basket on head
O Atlantes
▪ male in kneeling position
O Telamones
▪ male in a standing position

Theater – semi-circle in shape

O Orchestra
▪ performing place
O Skene / scene
▪ dressing room
O Proscenium
▪ backdrop for scenery
O Parados
▪ entrance/exit @ sides of skene
O Logeion
▪ stage / raised platform
O Theatron
▪ viewing place
O Cavea
▪ auditorium / banks of seats

Public buildings

  1. Agora
    ▪ open-air market place
  2. Stoa
    ▪ long colonnaded building
  3. Prytaneion
    ▪ senate house
  4. Bouleuterion
    ▪ council house
  5. Assembly halls
    ▪ for general assembly
  6. Odeion
    ▪ theater building
  7. Stadium / stadion
    ▪ for foot race / athletics
  8. Hippodrome
    ▪ for horse & chariot racing
  9. Palaestra
    ▪ wresting school
  10. Gymnasium
    ▪ for physical exercise; prototype for roman thermae
  11. Mausoleum
    ▪ monumental tombs
  12. Greek house
    ▪ usually one storey with rooms built around an internal court with porticos on three sides

– Notable structures

– Propylaea
Architect: Mnesicles
– The Parthenon – largest greek temple, Architect: Ictinus & Callicrates, Master sculptor : Phedias
– Erectheion– architect : Mnesicles
*famous for its caryatids
– The Temple of Zeus Olympus– Architect : Theron
*second largest greek temple
Temple of Apollo Epicurius– Architect : Ictinus
– Temple of Nike Apteros– Architect : Callicrates
– Temple of Artemis– Architect : Deinocrates, Master sculptor : Scopas
– The Olympion, Athens– Architect : Cossutius
– Theater @ epidauros– Architect : Polycleitus
*most beautiful example of greek theater & well preserved
– Theater of Dionysus
*considered to be the prototype of all greek theaters
– The Stadium, Athens– Architect : Herodes atticus
– Bouleuterion @ Milletus
*largest accommodation of 1,200
– The Mausoleum @ Halicarnassos– Architect : Pythius & Satyrus, Master sculptor : Scopas

Watch the Building of Parthenon-

Two (2) ways of describing rectangular Greek temples in relation to their columns:

1. Rows of exterior collonades
• Peripteral- One row of columns
• Dipteral- Two row of columns
• Tripteral- Three row of columns
• Pesudodipteral- Suggesting a dipteral collonade, but without the inner collonade

2. No. Of colums on the entrance front
• Henostyle : one (1) column
• Distyle : two (2) columns
• Tristyle : three (3) columns
• Tetrastyle : four (4) columns
• Pentastyle : five (5) column
• Hexastyle : six (6) columns
• Heptastyle : seven (7) columns
• Octastyle : eight (8) columns
• Ennastyle : nine (9) column
• Decastyle : ten (10) columns
• Dodecastyle : twelve (12) columns

PARTS OF A DORIC ORDER

Roman Architecture

2ND CENTURY B.C. – 4TH CENTURY A.D.

– Architectural character

  • Vastness & magnificence
  • Ostentation & ornateness

– Influences

A. Geographical

– commanding position in the mediterranean sea

– enabled to act as an intermediary in spreading art & civilization

B. Geological

– concrete : chief building material

C. Climactic

– variety in climactic conditions means diversity of arch’l features

D. Religious

– less temples for worship; religion became part of constitution

Roman gods / deities

  • Venus : Love, Beauty
  • Apollo : Music, Poetry, Medicine
  • Mars : War
  • Diana : Chastity
  • Minerva : Learning, Wisdom
  • Ceres : Earth, Agriculture
  • Bacchus : Wine, Feasting
  • Vulcan : Fire, Flame, Forgery
  • Juno : Wife Of Zeus; Marriage
  • Hercules : Son Of Zeus; Man + God
  • Mercury : Messenger Of The Gods
  • Vesta : Hearth, Home
  • Victoria : Victory
  • Faunus : Wild, Shepherds, Flock
  • Neptune : Sea, Earthquake, Storm
  • Jupiter : Supreme God

E. Historical

– Etruscan

  • earlier civilization
  • use of radiating arch
  • introduced the “tuscan” capital

– Roman

  • adopted archt’l style of greeks
  • developed arch, vault & dome of the etruscans

– Features

  • arch, vaults & domes
  • concrete wall facing

– Structures

Classical orders

Two (2) orders developed by Romans:

1) Tuscan order

  • influenced by the Doric order
  • simplest among the 5 orders

2) Composite order

  • combination of Ionic & Corinthian orders

Forum

market place

Temples

– rectangular

– circular & polygonal

Basilicas

-hall of justice / assembly hall

  • Thermae- Palatial Public Bath
  • Apodyteria- Dressing Room
  • Sudarium- Dry Sweating Room
  • Tepidarium- Warm Room
  • Calidarium- Hot Room / Hot Water Bath
  • Frigidarium- Cooling Room
  • Unctuaria / Untoria- Oils & Perfume Room
  • Spaeresterium- Game Room
  • Palaestra- For Physical Exercise

 Xystus

  • public park with avenues of trees
  • athletic sports took place

Balneum

private bath in roman houses- Tepidarium, caldarium, frigidarium

Theater

semi-circle in shape similar to greek theaters

Ampitheater

elliptical in shape for races & gladiator combats

Triumphal arches & gateways

commemorates victorius campaign of emperors & generals

Victory Column

monumental column / pillars for triumphs of generals

Palaces

used to house the emperors

Roman houses:

  • Domus– private house
  • Villa– luxurious country house
  • Insula– apartment block

Aqueducts

used for water supply

Pons / bridges

stone bridges used to resist the rush of water

Fountains

Lacus / locus– designed similar to a large basin of water

Salientes– fountain with spouting jets

– Notable structures

The pantheon (Architect : Apollodrus of Damascus)

Forum romanum (oldest & most important of all roman forums)

Forum of trajan (largest of all roman forums)

Temple of vesta (most sacred roman shrine)

Basilica ulpia (part of trajan’s forum)

Basilica maxentius / constantine (largest building in trajan’s forum)

Thermae of diocletian (largest with capacity of 3,000)

The colosseum, rome (Architect : vespasian, largest ampitheater (50,000 capacity))

Trajan’s column (Architect : apollodrus of damascus)

Early Christian Architecture

4TH CENTURY A.D.

– Architectural character

simplicity in design

coarseness in execution

– Influences

A. Geographical

– the birth of christianity near the eastern part of the roman empire

B. Geological

– ruins from the roman buildings were quarried & used as materials

C. Climactic

– variety in climactic conditions means diversity of arch’l features

D. Religious

– the spread of christianity has inspired buildings in this period

E. Historical

– christianity became the official religion of the roman empire

F. Socio-political

– constantine changed the capital of his empire from rome to byzantium

– Structures

House church- private place where early christians gathered to worship

Basilica- rectangular; greek / latin cross

Atrium- open courtyard with surrounding collonades

Narthex- entrance hall / porch

Nave- central aisle

Aisle- side corridors running parallel along the nave

Transcept- in cruciform church, the whole arm perpendicular to the nave

Crossing- area where the nave and transcept intersect

Apse- terminal of a church; usually semi-circular in shape

Baptistery- circular / polygonal; baptism place usually surrounds a basilica

Mausoleum- Monumental Tombs

– Notable Structures

  • Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City
  • St. Paolo Fouri Le Mura Basilica, Rome, Italy (Largest & most impressive of all Basilican churches)
  • St. Clemente Basilica, Rome, Italy
  • The Baptistery Of Constantine, Rome, Italy (Architect : Sixtus III, Oldest Italian Baptistery)
  • Mausoleum of Galla Placida, Ravenna, Italy
  • Mausoleum of Constantia, Rome, Italy

Byzantine Architecture

4TH CENTURY – 6TH CENTURY

– Architectural character

  • Simplicity
  • Richness

– Influences

A. Geographical

– byzantine empire stood on seven hills that gave it a commanding and central position for government

B. Geological

– clay bricks & concrete rubbles from the roman buildings were mainly used as materials

– marbles were shipped

C. Climactic

– climate was hot so small windows & openings were used

– flat roofs combined with domes & open courtyards with surrounding arcades were predominant

D. Religious

– with byzantine as the new capital of the roman empire, new churches were built for the christians

– the “iconoclastic movement” banned the use of statues as a decoration, thus, painting became as substitute. This is seen on the dome ceilings of the buildings.

E. Historical

– influenced by the massive character of babylonian architecture

– mostly incorporated the dome construction from the romans

F. Socio-political

Prominent movers of this archtecture:

Justinian I

  • Ordered to build hagia sophia

Theodosius II

  • Built several military gates & towers against goths & huns

– Features

  • Centralized plan; Greek cross
  • Massive domes with Pendentives
  • Small domes around a central dome
  • Extensive use of Mosaic decorations

– Notable structure

  • Hagia Sophia, Constantinople

Architect : Isidorus of Miletus, Anthemius of Tralles

  • St. Mark’s basilica, Venice

Architect : Domenico I Contarini

Saracenic Architecture

Also known as Islamic Architecture

7th century

* Moorish Architecture *

– An articulated variation of Saracenic architecture prevalent on the part of north Africa and parts of Spain & Portugal where moors were dominant

– Architectural character

  • Sober & grotesque

– Features

Mosques as principal buldings

  • Onion / Bulbous domes
  • Use of the arches

– horseshoe arch

– pointed arch

– cusped / scalloped / multifoil arch

  • Domed chhatris
  • Towers / minarets
  • Use of surface ornamentation

– Three (3) types of mosques

1. Fami masjid : Friday mosque (public)

2. Madrassah : Islamic school

3. Tomb mosque : For the dead

– Terminologies

O Chhatri : kiosk / pavilion

O Dar : men’s apartment

O Harem : women’s apartment

O Diwan : palaces

O Mihrab : niche facing mecca

O Mimber : raised platform for Ceremonial announcement

O Minaret : tall, slender preayer tower

O Mimbar : high pulpit / ambo

O Muhajar : baluster

O Selamuk : men’s quest quarter

O Sahn : atrium

O Fawwara : fountain

O Liwanat : collonade

O Dikka : reading desk

O Maqsura : screen

– Notable structures

– Taj mahal, Agra, India

Architect : Ustad Ahmad Lahauri

*built by Shah Jahan as a tomb for his wife Mumtaz Mahal

– Madras high court, Tamil nadu, India

Architect : J.W. Brassington

Romanesque Architecture

8th century – 12th century

– Architectural character

  • Sober & dignified

– Influences

A. Geographical

– basically a combination of roman & byzantine architecture

B. Geological

– stone, brick marble & terracotta were mainly used as materials

C. Climactic

– dull climate contributed to the use of:

North direction

  • large windows for light
  • high pitched roof to throw-off rain & snow

South direction

  • small windows for sun shade
  • flat roof

D. Religious

– christianity as the prevalent religion resulted to erection of churches

– papacy’s power & influence

E. Historical

– the emerging style in western europe was based on roman & byzantine architecture

F. Socio-political

  • the establishment of the “feudal system” resulted to the erection of castles which separated peasants

– Features

  • use of latin cross in church plans
  • use of rib & panel vaulting

– Quadripartite : four part

– Sexpartite : six part

  • use of rose / wheel windows
  • use of round & corbel arches

– Terminologies

O Dormer: window on a roof

O Groin vault: double barrel / cross

O Tierceron: secondary rib

O Lierne: tertiary rib

O Boss: center springing point

O Helm roof: steeply-pitched roof  with 4 faces rising to a point from the bases of the gable

– Structures

Italian romanesque

– Pisa cathedral

Architect : Dioti salvi

*one of the finest example of romanesque cathedral

– Campanille, Pisa

Architects : Bonnano pisano, Guglielmo agnelli

*famously known as the “leaning tower of pisa”

– Baptistery, Pisa

Architect : dioti salvi

*largest baptistery in italy

– Camposanto, Pisa

Architect : giovanni di simone

*monumental cemetery

French romanesque

– Basilica of notre dame du-port

Clermont-ferrand, france

– Angouleme cathedral

Charente, france

– Notre dame la grande

Poitiers, france

Architect : charles joly-leterme

German romanesque

– Aechen / aix-la chapelle cathedral

Architect : Odo of metz

*built by emperor charlemagne

– Basilica of the holy apostles

Cologne, germany

– Worms cathedral

Worms, germany

English Medieval Architecture

Between Romanesque & Gothic Architecture

– Periods of development

Anglo-saxon period

– characterized by the use of timber for domestic buildings

Norman / transition period

– characterized by bold & massive archs; piers & flat buttresses

Early english / Lancet period

– less massive & simple ornaments

– tall & narrow “lancet openings”

– projecting buttresses, pinnacles & steep-pitched roofs

Geometrical & Curvilinear period

– more elaborate decorations

– geometrical & flowing tracery crowned by ogee arch

– enlarged clerestory at the expense of triforium

Perpendicular period

– use of fan & pendant vaults

Tudor period

– used in domestic buildings

– characterized by gables with pinnacles, chimneys & finials

– Principal buildings

Castles / fortresses

– king & queen’s residence

– fortified group of buildings

– Terminologies

O Moat : deep ditch with water surrounding a castle

O Drawbridge : bridge that can be raised up & down

O Portcullis : trap door

O Loophole : small opening in castles

O Battlement : parapet for defense

O Merlon : solid part in battlement

O Crenel : open part in battlement

O Turret : small tower in a castle

O Bartizan : watch tower

– Notable structures

– Chateau de azay, France

– Chateau de pierrefonds, France

– Chateau chenonceau, Germany

Gothic Architecture

“Architecture reaches new heights”

13th century – 15th century

– Architectural character

  • lofty & aspiring quality
  • structural honesty
  • economy in the use of materials

– Features

  • pointed arches
  • flying butresses
  • rib & panel vaulting
  • stained glass
  • tracery windows
  • spires & pinnacles

– Characteristics

  • tall & linear in appearance
  • very decorative
  • the high ceilings and use of many large windows made the interior
  • Airy and bright

– Structures

England | English gothic

– Westminster abbey

*coronation church of england

– Winshester cathedral

*longest medieval cathedral in europe

– York cathedral

*largest in area & width among any english medieval cathedral

– Salisbury cathedral

*boasts off central tower with the loftiest spire

– Canterbury cathedral

*one of the oldest & most famous christian structures in england

– Durham cathedral

*earliest great cathedral designed entirely with rib vaulting system

France | French gothic (“Style Ogivale”)

– Notre dame de paris

*one of the finest examples of french gothic architecture

– Chartres cathedral

*famous for 176 stained glass windows

– Rheims cathedral

*coronation church of france

* famous for its 500 statues in its west facade

– Amiens cathedral

*counterpart of salisbury cathedral in england

– Beauvais cathedral

– Glouchester cathedral

– Milan cathedral

Germany | German gothic

– Cologne cathedral

*largest gothic church of northern europe, approx. Area of 91,000 m2

Spain | Spanish gothic

– Seville cathedral

*largest gothic cathedral in the world

– Santiago de compostella cathedral

– Barcelona cathedral

– Terminologies

O Crocket : hook-shaped decorative element on sloping edge

O Gargoyle : monster sculpture used as decorative spouts

O Retablo / Reredo : ornamental screen behind an altar

O Tracery : ornamental work in the upper part of a window

O Finial : formal ornamet at the top of a pinnacle

O Pinnacle : looks like a small spire

O Spire : steeply pointed termination of a tower

O Steeple : tower crowned by spire

Renaissance Architecture

“classical ideas reborn”

15th century – 18th century

* Renaissance *

– the rebirth / revival of the greek & roman classical arts & culture

– birth place was in florence, italy

* Mannerism *

– marked by widely diverging from renaissance & medieval styles that eventually led to baroque style

– Architectural character

  • dignity & formality

– Features

  • reintroduction of the five (5) classical orders
  • symmetry in plan & form
  • extensive use of domes on a drum
  • use of semicircular arches
  • use of vaults without ribs
  • use of rusticated masonry
  • use of greek cross & Latin cross plan in churches

– Structures

Italy | Italian renaissance

– St. Peter’s basilica

*most important building in Ita. Ren.

*largest church in the world

*principal architects were:

§ donato bramante

§ michaelangelo buonarrotti

§ carlo maderna

§ gian lorenzo bernini

– Florence cathedral

Architect : Filippo brunelleschi

*famous for the enormous brick dome

– Vatican palace

Architect : Donato Bramante

*largest palace in Italy

Other notable architects

§ Giacomo da vignola

§ Raphael / raffaello sanzio

§ Leon battista alberti

§ Andrea palladio – “father of modern picture books of architecture”

France | French Renaissance

– Chateaus – castles

*chateau de blois

*chateau de chambord

*chateau de fontainebleau

– Palais – palaces

*palais de versailles

*palais de louvre

Germany | German Renaissance

– Heidelberg castle

*well exemplifies different

Periods of the renaissance

– Walhalla temple

*resembles the greek parthenon

Belgium & netherlands | belgian & dutch

– Townhall, Antwerp

*important prototype of early belgian renaissance architecture

– Townhall, Brussels

*company house for farmers & traders

Spain | Spanish Renaissance

– Granada cathedral

*one of the grandest church in southern spain

– The University of Salamanca

– The Escorial, Madrid

England | English Renaissance

– Elizabethan mansions

– queen’s house, Greenwich

Architect : inigo jones

– st. Paul’s cathedral

Architect : christopher wren

*greatest english renaissance bldg.

Russia | Russian Renaissance

– st. Basil’s cathedral

Architect : Postnik yakovlev, Ivan barma

Baroque Architecture

1600 to 1830 A.D.

– Architectural character

– “architecture of exuberance”

– “architecture of the curved line”

– serious, dramatic & heavy

Churrigueresque : Spanish baroque

– Elements of the style are found throughout Europe

– Features

  • Assymetry of spaces
  • bold, massive collonades & domes
  • broader naves; sometimes oval shape
  • opulent use of colors & ornaments
  • illusory effects like Trompe L’eoils
  • large scale ceiling frescoes
  • dramatic use of light

Rococo Architecture

1650-1790 A.D

– Architectural character

  • A subset of Baroque architecture- “Final phase of Baroque”
  • light, airy & decorative
  • Graceful white buildings with Sweeping curves

– Features

  • The colour scheme is lighter
  • Excessive decoration
  • curvaceous (‘S’ curve)
  • abundance of curves
  • Simple exteriors, high ornamental interiors
  • Complex floor plans of churches

Notable Structures

  • Amalienburg Palace, Munich, Germany
  • Branicki Palace, Warsaw, Poland
  • Linderhof Palace, Germany
  • Catherine Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia 
  • Czapski Palace, Warsaw, Poland

Neoclassical Architecture

(1730 to 1925 A.D.)

– Architectural character

  • grandeur of scale,
  • simplicity of geometric forms

4 thoughts on “History Of Architecture Timeline”

  1. I found this to be an excellent format which enabled me to acquire a good overview of the developments in global architecture. I am particularly interested in classical architecture and this will enable me to expand upon this area of architecture in the future.

    Reply

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